Monday, March 15, 2021

Prominent Canadian Whistleblowers--including Brian McAdam & RCMP, Corporal Robert Reid: Concerning National Security

....the 'Centre for Free Expression'

Prominent Canadian Whistleblowers

The following individuals are testimony to the inadequacy of whistleblower protection in Canada.  All spoke up when they saw wrongdoing that affected the public interest. Many helped expose serious misconduct, incompetence or corruption.

A few  have been recognized and publicly praised for their efforts – but nearly all suffered harsh retribution from their employers as a result of their actions. Their stories demonstrate the importance of whistleblowers and the need for strong legal and institutional protection for them.

This Centre for Free Expression would like to acknowledge the work of David Hutton, CFE Senior Fellow and former Executive Director of FAIR, for making this List possible. The individuals listed here represent a tiny fraction of the Canadian whistleblowers that have raised concerns and, of those, only cases already in the public domain.

Dr. John O'Connor

Dr. John O'Connor, an Alberta doctor, was startled to encounter several cases of a very rare cancer in Fort Chipewyan, in the Athabasca oil patch. His further investigations revealed unusually high rates of cancers among the residents, and he called for a thorough health review of the community. His findings contributed to concerns that oil extraction operations may be contaminating the environment with carcinogenic chemicals.

In what was perceived as an attempt to muzzle him, Health Canada doctors lodged four complaints against O'Connor with his professional body – charges which could have resulted in the loss of his license. Doctors were alarmed by this incident, since such reports from doctors in the field have been vital to the detection of new diseases such as AIDS. Consequently, in 2007 the Canadian Medical Association passed a resolution (#103) calling for whistleblower protection for doctors – apparently to protect them from Health Canada.



Asley Jenkins 

Ashley Jenkins is a nurse who was brought in to oversee rehabilitation of the Rosslyn nursing home in Hamilton, Ontario that had just been evacuated after a disastrous COVID-19 outbreak.  Almost all of the 86 residents and staff were infected, and 16 died. Her task was to correct the shortcomings that had caused this lethal outbreak and prepare the home to reopen.  She soon uncovered a litany of shocking problems, ranging from expired medications, missing medical records, bed bugs and vermin, to insufficient and unqualified staff. The basics of proper care and hygiene were absent, let alone the additional measures required to combat a deadly virus.

Yet the owners, the Martino family, evidently wanted the home reopened immediately, regardless of these problems, and instructed Ashley to lie to a health inspector who turned up unexpectedly. She refused, knowing that this might endanger her job, but she was unwilling to be party to a potentially deadly coverup. In the end, the Rosslyn nursing home remained closed, and six other homes, also run by the Martino family, had their licences revoked by the provincial regulator. 

Ashley Jenkins’ actions undoubtedly saved many lives, but her reward was to be fired, and to face what she believes were reprisals orchestrated by those she exposed, including a confirmed job offer withdrawn without explanation and attempts to have her nursing licence revoked.

Ken Pereira

Ken Pereira was one of the star witnesses in the Charbonneau Commission on corruption in the construction industry. His explosive testimony blew the lid off deep ties between Quebec's largest union and organized crime.

  • Ken Pereira, union whistle-blower, tells his full story in new book | CBC | October 17, 2015​

Organizer who exposed corruption in Quebec's largest construction union says he did it for the common man

  • Hells Angels, Mob ran FTQ construction wing, witness says

Ken Pereira testifies he turned police informant after discovering his life was in danger

Alayne Fleischmann

In late 2006, Alayne Fleischmann, a British Columbia native, witnessed one of the biggest white-collar crimes ever committed in America. While she was working as a deal manager at JPMorgan Chase, she saw the bank knowingly sell “scratch-and-dent loans” to investors without disclosing that they were high risk. 

This fraudulent activity contributed to the 2008 financial crises. Fleischmann was laid off and obligated to sign a confidentiality agreement. She returned to B.C. and had trouble finding work with Chase on her resume. 

In 2012, a Federal prosecutor asked Fleischmann to be a key witness in a lawsuit against Chase. But in May 2014, there was still no follow up from the investigators. In truth, the Justice Department was using her as a bargaining tool to extract money from Chase’s CEO Jamie Dimon. This tactic worked. Dimon paid $9 billion to keep them quiet.

Despite that Fleischmann signed a non-disclosure agreement, could be sued into bankruptcy, and lose her license as a lawyer, she decided to speak up eight years after she left the company in a Rolling Stone article.

In January 2018, she was awarded the Wallenberg-Sugihara Civil Courage Award, which is given to B.C. citizens who have faced personal risk to stand up for human rights.

Alayne Fleischmann said, “It was like watching an old lady get mugged on the street…I can’t sit by any longer…”

  • Lawyer receives civil courage award | Terrace Standard | February 3, 2018

Alayne Fleischmann was presented the Wallenberg-Sugihara Civil Courage Award on Jan. 14, an award given to B.C. connected citizens who have faced significant personal risk to advance human rights…

  • Whistleblower ‘sick’ over JPMorgan’s settlement after financial crisis | Toronto Star | December 17, 2014

Alayne Fleischmann says even with hindsight, she would do it all over again…

Don Garrett​

While carrying out repair work at the Kent prison in BC, Don Garrett, a successful general contractor, was exposed to deadly chrysotile asbestos, along with his work crew, guards and others. This serious incident occurred because the Public Works management responsible for tendering the work hid the presence of asbestos in the work site, even after multiple requests from Garrett for such information. PWGSC even concealed the existence of a 190-page Asbestos Containing Materials (ACM) which fully set out all such hazards in the prison. 

When Garrett took his concerns to the Public Sector Integrity Commissioner, Mario Dion, little happened for two years, then he received a letter rejecting his claims and stating that there had been no wrongdoing by anyone. In the meantime, Garrett was bankrupted by Public Works’ apparent reprisals, such as refusing to pay him for the work done, and effectively barring him from further government contracts. 

Subsequent events

Garrett continued to fight for justice, obtaining thousands of pages of documentation through access to information, and uncovering the existence of the vital ACM report. In 2014 David Hutton, then executive director of FAIR, undertook an analysis of this case. Hutton concluded that, on the basis of the documentation available, Dion’s investigation was worse than flawed. 

Hutton believes that PSIC effectively made itself party to a cover-up of serious misconduct by Public Works, by concealing vital information from Garrett and other witnesses, by shutting down an investigator who seemed on track to expose the truth, and by concluding with a cursory three-page ‘decision letter’ riddled with errors of fact. This letter dismissed without evidence Garrett’s central allegation – that he was not informed of the asbestos hazard – when in Hutton’s opinion the documentary evidence demonstrates the opposite.

This case is important because raises serious questions regarding the disclosure of asbestos hazards in government buildings across the country, and whether staff and contractors are adequately protected during repair and maintenance work. It also raises serious questions about the performance of PSIC, the agency set up to expose government wrongdoing and to protect whistleblowers.

Sylvie Therrien

In July 2013 Sylvie Therrien was suspended without pay for revealing that she, like other Employment Insurance investigators, was subject to a quota: to achieve savings of nearly $500,000 per year by denying EI benefits to applicants. In order to achieve these quotas, many deserving EI claimants were being harassed and improperly penalized, she said.

Therrien felt that she could not 'send people to the street' in order to meet these arbitrary targets, but was soon perilously close to the street herself. The government fired her for cause, which means that she would receive no EI assistance, and stripped her of her security clearance, rendering her unemployable in the public service. Unable to afford her rent, she found shelter sleeping on a friend's couch.

In October 2013, Therrien filed a complaint to the Office of the Public Sector Integrity Commissioner, which was created to protect whistle blowers in the aftermath of speaking out. It has been five years and she still hasn’t received a response. 

When Therrien learned that the integrity commissioner wouldn’t investigate her case because it was involved with the labour board, she appealed. In January 2017, the Federal Court of Appeal said the commissioner was able to assess the case, but decided not to.  

Therrien declared bankruptcy earlier this year. 





  • 'Process is torturous': Federal whistleblower says Canada doesn't protect people who speak out | CBC | September 2, 2018

"Canada has the reputation internationally of being the Titanic of whistleblower legislation…"

  • Employment insurance whistleblower still seeking justice three years later | Toronto Star | Jan 31, 2016

Sylvie Therrien, a former EI fraud investigator who spoke out about being pressured to meet savings quotas by reducing payouts, says her ...

  • Whistleblower law does little to protect public servants Hamilton Spectator | Nov 18, 2013

Sylvie Therrien lost her job with Service Canada after telling the media ... OTTAWA Canada's whistleblower law, enacted by Prime Minister ...

  • Suspension of EI whistleblower sets dangerous precedent, critics say | Toronto Star | Jul 22, 2013

Sylvie Therrien leaked documents that revealed federal investigators were told to find $485,000 of Employment Insurance fraud every year.

Dr. Michèle Brill-Edwards

Dr. Michèle Brill-Edwards is a pediatrician and clinical pharmacologist who in 1988 became Health Canada’s senior physician responsible for the regulation of clinical trials and market approvals of prescription drugs.

In 1996 she resigned from Health Canada to speak publicly against the undue influence of the pharmaceutical industry on the drug approval process, and the resulting unreliable decisions endangering human lives.





  • Michele Brill-Edwards | Wikipedia

Michele Brill-Edwards is a Canadian whistle-blower. She is a lecturer and emergency physician in the Department of Pediatrics at the University of Ottawa.

  • Critical Dialogue with Dr. Michele Brill-Edwards | | May 20, 2006

Dr. Michele Brill-Edwards, former senior physician with Health Canada shares her first hand experiences with how Big Pharma influences and ...

  • Doctor Flags Dangerous Flaws In Drug Regulation

Dr. Michele Brill-Edwards is a senior physician who spent 15 years with Canada's Health Protection Branch (HPB). She resigned after becoming convinced that ...

Edgar Schmidt

Edgar Schmidt was a senior Justice Department lawyer who became responsible for the legally-required review of new bills to ensure that they comply with the Canadian Charter and Bill of Rights.

Schmidt found that for the past 20 years the department's instructions to its lawyers had effectively gutted this provision, allowing laws to be enacted that may infringe upon Canadians' fundamental rights.

In 2013 he took his own department to court, calling for clarification of his duty to uphold the law in the face of his bosses' instructions to the contrary.





Federal Court rules on case of whistleblower Edgar Schmidt ... 2 regarding the case of Edgar Schmidt, a former Justice Department lawyer who ...

  • The whistleblower | National  | Nov 2013

Edgar Schmidt sued his own ministry over its process for vetting legislation, exposing the ethical conundrums that government lawyers face. ... He had raised the issue over a 10-year period with higher-ups, including the deputy minister of justice and the chief legislative counsel.

  • Government whistleblower just doing 'the right thing' | Global News | Apr 3, 2013

It used to be his cottage, but now Edgar Schmidt calls the three-storey white pine loft his home. The 60-year-old lawyer relocated to ...

  • Feds ordered to pay legal costs for Justice Department whistleblower | | Mar 8, 2013

A federal judge has ordered the government to cover the legal expenses of Edgar Schmidt, a lawyer for Department of Justice who has filed ...

Evan Vokes

Evan Vokes is a metallurgical engineer who learned that his employer, TransCanada Pipelines, often failed to comply with the engineering codes that are essential to ensure the safety and reliability of pipelines.

After raising his concerns through the line of command to the senior executive and to the regulator without any satisfactory response, he went public with his allegations, which were featured on the CBC National news program in October 2012. Apparently stung into action by public criticism, the regulator launched an investigation which validated many of Vokes' concerns.





  • They told me to take money and run, says pipeline whistleblower | National Observer | Mar 18, 2016

Engineer Evan Vokes standing by soccer field, where pipelines are laid underground, in Cochrane, Alberta, 2015. Photo by Mike De Souza.

  • TransCanada whistleblower's complaints validated by NEB | | Feb 25, 2014

TransCanada whistleblower's complaints validated by NEB ... system conducted after the complaints of whistleblower Evan Vokes were ...

  • TransCanada Whistleblower Warns Of Shoddy Pipeline Practices | Huffington Post | Jun 11, 2013

Former TransCanada Corp. employee Evan Vokes' impassioned testimony before a Canadian Senate committee last week painted “a very, ...

Dr. Shiv Chopra

In 1998 Dr. Shiv Chopra and two colleagues at Health Canada testified to the Senate that they were being pressured to approve drugs into the food supply without the legally required evidence of human safety.

Their revelations created headlines around the world and led to bovine growth hormone rBGH -- a product used to boost cows' milk production -- being banned in most developed countries except the USA.

In 2004 the three scientists were fired simultaneously for 'insubordination'. 

In 2014, Chopra founded the Canadian Council for Food Safety and Health, saying he still had concerns about what he called the “five pillars of food safety” — hormones, antibiotics, slaughterhouse byproducts used in animal feed, pesticides and genetically modified organisms.

Shiv Chopra died January 7, 2018 at the age of 84 after spending much of the past three decades in the spotlight.





  • Website:
  • Corrupt to the Core: Memoirs of a Health Canada Whistleblower Aug 12 2009

by Shiv Chopra (Author)

  • Whistleblower Shiv Chopra remembered for 'speaking truth to power' | January 11, 2018

Shiv Chopra did not fear wading into controversy. He would do it again and again. The government scientist said it was his job to blow the whistle when the evidence showed that drugs used for animals posed a danger to the safety of Canada’s food system.

  • Whistleblower scientist not entitled to get job back, court rules | CBC | Sept 6, 2017

Dr. Shiv Chopra has lost his 13-year battle to regain the Health Canada job from which he was fired in 2004. The ruling came from the Federal Court of Appeal on Wednesday. Chopra called it a "travesty of justice." Chopra was one of three Health Canada veterinary scientists who spoke out in the 1990s

  • Dr. Shiv Chopra brings anti-TPP message to Chilliwack | Chilliwack Times | Apr 12, 2016

This Thursday, former Health Canada senior scientist and whistleblower Dr. Shiv Chopra speaks in Chilliwack about his opposition to the TPP ...

  • Effectively silencing Canada's whistleblowers | Toronto Star | Aug 13, 2011

The scientists — Dr. Shiv Chopra, Margaret Haydon and Gerard Lambert — had for years valiantly resisted repeated efforts by Health Canada ...

  • 1 of 3 Health Canada 'whistleblowers' reinstated | CBC News | Aug, 8, 2011

Dr. Shiv Chopra is one of three former Health Canada scientists who was fired in 2004. He lost a recent decision by the public service labour ...

  • Whistleblowing at Health Canada: Chopra speaks out | NCBI | Sept 2009

In 1998, Dr. Shiv Chopra and two colleagues testified to a Senate Committee that Health Canada managers had pressured them to release suspect veterinary ...

Ian Bron

In 2005 Ian Bron began to raise concerns regarding the inadequacy of standards being developed by Transport Canada for security in our ports to prevent terrorist attacks. Management's response was to isolate and harass him.

When he wrote a formal report about his concerns in 2006 his bosses claimed that he was harassing them and launched an investigation that would ultimately last 3 years.

In 2013 Bron left the public service. He asserts that his concerns regarding security were never properly investigated and that few of the problems he identified have been addressed.





  • 'I couldn't just sit by and watch things happen': whistleblower Ian Bron | Hill Times | Jun 23, 2014

Chief of Transport Canada's marine transportation security's regulatory affairs in 2005, Ian Bron said his life was turned upside down after ...

  • Marine security riddled with gaps: whistleblower | CBC News | Jan 23, 2008

…11, 2001, terrorist attacks, writes an award-winning civil servant and former naval officer who has since left the department. Ian Bron, 41, served ...

Joanna Gualtieri

Joanna Gualtieri exposed lavish extravagance in the purchase of accommodation abroad for staff in Foreign Affairs. The Inspector General and Auditor General of Canada later supported her allegations. Gualtieri claimed the Bureau seemed not to care, that her bosses harassed her for raising the concerns and that she was a given dead-end job after coming forward.

Ms. Gualtieri continued to battle for other whistleblowers by founding FAIR (Federal Accountability Initiative for Reform) and by serving as a director for almost 10 years.

  • Trudeau’s Words On Federal Whistleblower Law An ‘Illusion,’ Warns Former Whistleblower | HuffPost | February 15, 2021

  • 'I was a broken person': The long, hard journey of whistleblower Joanna Gualtieri | Ottawa Citizen | Nov 18, 2016

Former public servant Joanna Gualtieri, who blew the whistle on lavish spending at Canada's foreign missions two decades ago, says she lives with sadness for what her long struggle has cost her.

  • Enemy of the state: Weston | Toronto Sun | Apr 11, 2010

Joanna Gualtieri had just joined Foreign Affairs as a property ... It is now almost impossible for a future whistleblower to sue the government.

  • Whistleblower wins case against feds | Toronto Sun | Apr 6, 2010

Joanna Gualtieri, a former foreign affairs realty portfolio manager, began to file reports alleging the department was spending extravagant ...

  • Whistleblower awaits justice after 14 years | | May 15, 2006

Joanna Gualtieri's efforts to fix what she considered a corrupt ... she says, she ultimately turned into a whistleblower who has sued her former ...

Sean Bruyea

In 2005, former Air Force intelligence officer Sean Bruyea discovered serious flaws in a new program for injured soldiers, which was being rushed through Parliament in a secretive and underhanded manner. The legislation, known as the 'New Veterans Charter' scrapped the comprehensive life-long benefits hitherto provided to injured veterans and replaced these with a one-time lump sum payment of much lower value. Although he was not personally affected by the new program, Bruyea became an outspoken critic of the Charter and campaigned vigorously against it. He also advocated successfully for the creation of a veterans ombudsman: his writings provided the foundation of the Conservative Party 2006 election platform that promised to create a watchdog for veterans rights.

Finding Bruyea's advocacy unwelcome, Veterans Affairs bureaucrats plotted to punish him by destroying his credibility, and did so by broadcasting highly sensitive personal information from his medical files – Bruyea suffers from Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and other psychological and physical injuries as a result of his service in the 1991 Gulf war. Veterans Affairs bureaucrats included large amounts of such personal information in briefing notes to various federal Cabinet Ministers, the Prime Minister’s Office and others, falsely suggesting that Bruyea was mentally unstable. Ultimately more than 800 people in the bureaucracy had access to his personal medical records – perhaps one of the worst violations ever of Canadian privacy laws.

The Public Sector Integrity Commissioner refused to investigate Bruyea's case, saying that the misconduct he was reporting did not amount to 'wrongdoing' as defined in the legislation that provides her mandate.

  • The disgrace at Veterans Affairs Canada | Globe and Mail | Oct 15, 2010

So, too, has retired captain Sean Bruyea, a 14-year air force vet with service ... After Mr. Bruyea started criticizing the department in 2005 over a ...

  • Privacy breach at Veterans Affairs 'struck terror in our hearts' | Globe and Mail | Sep 22, 2010

Sean Bruyea was a rare voice of dissent when he spoke out against a new Veterans Charter at a 2005 Senate hearing. The retired veteran of ...

The 'RCMP Five'

The RCMP Pension Fund scandal finally came to light through the efforts of five people, who all struggled on courageously in the face of apparent attempts by RCMP top brass to block investigations. Denise Revine was the human resource director who first uncovered the suspicious transactions and compiled a massive file of evidence. Her boss Chief Superintendent Fraser Macaulay tried to ensure that this evidence was properly investigated – and was removed from his position and given what he believed was a punitive secondment. Retired Staff-Sgt. Ron Lewis led persistent efforts to make someone in authority pay attention – first within the RCMP, then in outside agencies such as the Treasury Board and Auditor General, and finally to MPs and the media. Staff-Sgt. Steve Walker took part in the Ottawa Police Service's criminal investigation into the affair, and Staff-Sgt. Mike Frizzell was abruptly removed from the investigation as his inquiries got close to senior RCMP management.

In an unprecedented turn of events all five were given the RCMP’s most coveted award, the Commissioner’s Commendation, for outstanding service, and a Commons committee unanimously passed a motion that the five be publicly commended and that commendation be tabled in Parliament. Prior to this, no Canadian whistleblower had ever received formal thanks or recognition from the authorities.

  • High cost of whistleblowing | Toronto Star | Jun 30, 2007  

Outgoing RCMP Commissioner Bev Busson formally commended those five people with Commissioner's Commendations – the force's top ...

  • Commons committee shocked by details of RCMP pension plan allegations | | Mar 29, 2007

Five RCMP officers and a whistleblower who lost her job accused the force's senior management, led by.

Allan Cutler

Allan Cutler was a procurement officer with Public Works Department who refused to go along with improper procurement practices, and as a result suffered retaliation from management over the course of many years. Cutler lodged a complaint, which prompted a departmental audit of the advertising and public opinion division. But by the time the audit was underway, Cutler was transferred to the technical and special services division of Public Works. During the Sponsorship Scandal investigation Cutler tabled an inch thick document which contained meticulous notes, memos and his own diary detailing how the rules were being broken. The evidence that he painstakingly gathered during this ordeal was vital to the Gomery Inquiry.

  • Allan Cutler was a Conservative hero | | Oct 15, 2013

Allan Cutler, a former Conservative candidate who was famous for whistleblowing during the Sponsorship Scandal, has lost faith in his former ...

  • Quebec Election 2012: Allan Cutler knows a whistleblower when he ... | Toronto Star | Aug 8, 2012

Allan Cutler, seen in 2005, is the former federal bureaucrat who blew the whistle on the now-infamous Sponsorship Program in 2003. (Tannis ...

Daniel Land

Daniel Land was in charge of testing meat for pathogens at the Pitt Meadows Meats plant in BC. When he received a positive test result for the deadly E. coli O157 he immediately told his bosses, but the plant manager told him to keep quiet about it and threw the test result into the garbage can, said Land.

The company also did not notify the authorities – a serious breach of regulations. The company fired Land and made various accusations against him: telling the media that it was because of his inability to get along with co-workers, that he was a disgruntled employee, and that they suspected him of tampering with the meat samples.

The Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) ordered a recall and launched an investigation that resulted in a report being sent to federal Crown. No charges have been laid. The company changed its name to Meadow Valley Meats and gave up its federal license: it is no longer inspected by CFIA and does not have to test for E. coli since BC provincial regulations do not require this.

  • Pitt Meadows Meats apologizes, pleads guilty in E. coli case | CBC | Apr 13, 2015

Pitt Meadows Meats pleaded guilty on Monday to selling E. coli-tainted ... Daniel Land says the Pitt Meadows plant manager ignored a positive ...

  • Meat industry whistleblower says problems persist | CTV Vancouver | Oct 5, 2012

Daniel Land, who worked as a quality assurance inspector for Pitt Meadows Meats, is slamming the Canadian Food Inspection Agency for not ...

B.C. meat plant covers up positive E. coli test - British Columbia | CBC  | Jan 19, 2011

The cover-up came to light when Daniel Land, who oversaw the plant's quality assurance, contacted CBC News, saying officials at Pitt Meadows ...

Bob Gale

Bob Gale is a former Commissioner of the Niagara Parks Commission who in 2008 exposed that the commission had secretly signed a sweetheart 25-year lease extension with the current operator of the Maid of the Mist boat tours. This deal, worth hundreds of millions of dollars to the operator, shut out other potential bidders offering more favourable terms. After an eight-month investigation, two government reviews and further damaging revelations in the media, the commission was overruled by the Ontario Ministry of Tourism and ordered to conduct an open competitive tender process for the lease. In 2012 the contract was awarded to a different company at an estimated saving to the taxpayer of 300 million dollars.

  • Whistleblower Bob Gale Saved Ontario Taxpayers $300 Million | Niagara At Large | Feb 23, 2012

Case also demonstrates that Ontario's whistleblower protection system needs strengthened. From David Hutton OTTAWA, February 22 —When ...

Brian McAdam/China

Brian McAdam's 30-year career in the foreign service ended suddenly in 1993 after he exposed corruption at the Canadian Consulate in Hong Kong and the infiltration of Chinese organized crime members and spies into Canada. His work saved the Canadian government an estimated $50 million, prevented the entry of over 1,000 organized crime figures such as Triad, Yakuza, and Mafia members into Canada, and revealed China's extensive espionage activities in Canada, which have now been confirmed by Canada's intelligence service, Chinese defectors and others.

  • One man's China crusade | | Aug 25, 2008

For Canadian diplomat Brian McAdam, it wasn't that he had. ... Both Canadian and Chinese consular staff, he says, were selling visas to ...

Brian describes a "remote targetted attack" which has been used used on other diplomats

Donna Jacobs, The Ottawa Citizen

Published: Monday, August 25, 2008

For Canadian diplomat Brian McAdam, it wasn't that he had uncovered the lucrative sale of Canadian visas during his posting at Canada's Hong Kong consulate.

Both Canadian and Chinese consular staff, he says, were selling visas to members of the Chinese mafia and Communist China's intelligence service. The price, he heard, ranged from $10,000 to $100,000 per visa.

It wasn't that reports he sent to his bosses in Canada -- details on murderers, money launderers, smugglers and spies trying to enter Canada -- were met with silence or mostly destroyed.

It wasn't dozens of threatening calls -- "Stop what you're doing or you're going to find yourself dead" -- from Triad members during his 1989-1993 stint in Hong Kong.

What finally broke him down, he says, was "the incredible feeling of betrayal from my colleagues. I'd worked with these people for years."

"It goes to your very soul," he says. "It is a spiritual crisis. It is a psychological breakdown."

There was the day he got a phone call from his Hong Kong Police Department source, who was wiretapping a Triad kingpin.

"What shocked the Hong Kong policeman was that the Triad member had phoned someone in the Canadian immigration minister's office in Ottawa," says Mr. McAdam.

"The officer commented: 'With that kind of relationship, you've got a really serious problem.' "

What shocked Mr. McAdam was what the officer said next: The Canadian reassured the Triad boss, "Don't worry about McAdam and what he's doing. We'll take care of him."

Cpl. Robert Read/China

Cpl. Robert Read a 26-year veteran of the RCMP was fired after investigating government corruption involving the Canadian High Commission in Hong Kong. In the course of his investigation he uncovered evidence of the corruption and what appeared to him to be a massive cover-up of that evidence. Read‘s investigation involved very rich and powerful members of the business community in Hong Kong, political connections in the People‘s Republic of China and the Liberal government of Jean Chretien.

An RCMP external review committee later vindicated Read saying the Mounties had seriously mishandled investigations into complaints that Asian triads had infiltrated the embassy. The committee also found that the national police force was reluctant to investigate foreign affairs employees who were suspected of taking bribes from China‘s rich and powerful, many of whom are widely known to be part of the communist spy network. In its ruling, the committee said that Read was justified in taking his concerns to the media and ordered him reinstated. The RCMP refused.

Read took his case to the Federal Court of Canada. In June 2005 Judge Sean Harrington condemned Read for “a lack of loyalty to the government” and reaffirmed his firing. Read has since appealed all the way to the Supreme Court of Canada, which in May 2007 declined to hear his case.

  • SCC won't hear appeal from RCMP whistleblower | CTV News | May 10, 2007

Robert Read, an RCMP corporal and a 26-year veteran of the force, went public through the media in 1999 with his allegations of corruption ...

  • RCMP whistle-blower fighting for job | | Jan 17, 2002

RCMP tries to fire whistle-blower of alleged corruption at Canada's Hong Kong ... Robert Reid is facing an RCMP adjudication board in Ottawa that ... that the RCMP has taken against Corporal Reid and the reason why we're ...

RCMP-CSIS Joint Review CommitteeDraft Submission
Chinese Intelligence Servicesand Triads Financial Links in Canada
Draft Submittedto the RCMP-CSISJoint Review Committee24 June 1997
In May 1996 a joint project was initiated by the RCMP Criminal Analysis Branch andthe CSIS Analysis and Production Branch to assess the extent of the threat posed by theacquisition and control of Canadian companies by members or associates of triads andwith affiliations to the Chinese Intelligence Services. The research team quickly realizedthat the initial premise was the tip of the iceberg with only a minute portion of a much morecomplex situation showing. It should be stressed that this report is a prospective documentthat makes to claim to provide a full survey of the issue; in fact, quite the opposite.This document does not present theories but indicators of a multifaceted threat toCanada's national security based on concrete fats drawn from the databanks of the twoagencies involved, classified reports from allied agencies and various open sources. Thisstudy has departed from the conventional and sometimes confining approaches followedby our respective methodologies. Althougbotorganizations havfairly extensiveexpertise on Chinese matters, it is nevertheless very different. It is clear at the end of thisexercise that both organizations have gained from cooperating on this research. When puttogether, these two bodies of expertise complement each other, providing a broader andmore substantial perspective of the Chinese issues. (S)The scope of the problem found after a few weeks of research dictated that theinitial research results had to be presented in the form of case studies. At the moment, weestimate that over 200 Canadian companies are under the direct or indirect control ofChina. Although it was impossible to do all the research within the parameters initiallygiven; howeversufficient details havbeefound to reveal the threatIt should bereiterated that this report presents concrete facts, not just ideas or speculation. We trustthat we have demonstrated the need to continue the work within a broader and moreelaborate framework. (C)
Chinese Intelligence Services and TriadsFinancial Links in CanadaSUMMARY
Since the mid-1980s, a substantial immigration flow from Hong Kong has takenplace and Canadian authorities were first alerted when a significant presence of Chineseorganized crimelementamonthis group wadetected. Many came through the"entrepreneur and "investor" immigration program and some of these criminals even havesucceeded to obtain their Canadian citizenship. Although not all immigrants in thesecategories are suspected, two particular groups of individuals raised attention. Two othergroups have also taken advantage of the "entrepreneur" and "investor" categories toimmigrate and to invest in Canada. First, a certain number of very rich Hong Kong Chinesebusiness people (tycoons) who are known to have been cooperating with the ChineseGovernment for years. Then a group composed of associates and relatives of China'sleadership and the Chinese Intelligence Service (ChIS). Intelligence reveals that certainindividuals of these three groups have been working for over fifteen years in concert withthe Chinese government, and some of their "financial ventures" in Canada serve to concealcriminal or intelligence activities. (S)Hand in hand with this situation, the ChIS [Chinese Intelligence Service] make veryactive use of their access to Canadian industries through exchanges of specialists andstudents, and also set up shell companies to pursue their acquisition of economic andtechnological intelligence. Cooperation between the Hong Kong tycoons, the triads and theBeijing leadership adds a new dimensioto the well known "mass line collection" strategyfollowed by the ChIS. This situation substantially raises the level of the potential threat,revealing the effectiveness of Chinese efforts to obtain Canadian technology and theircapability to interfere in the management of the country. Central points and essential for theunderstanding of the problem are the cultural singularities that characterize the Chinese asthconcepts of "debof honour", "duties""
Hou Tai 
 or backers" an"
 orconnections." ) (S)By using these alliances, the Chinese government is trying to gain influence onCanadian politics by maximizing their presence over some of the country's economiclevers. To that end, they proceed initially to buy and/or legally set up a company in Canadathat, once under their control, buys other companies and so on. An effective domino effectensues that acts like a well-spun web or network at strategic points. It is estimated that
over 200 Canadian companies have passed into Chinese influence or ownership since theearly 1980s through the triads, tycoons or China national companies. These businessesare found in various sectors of the economy, ranging from multinationals to banking, hightechnology and real estate (CITIC, Norinco, Husky Oil, Grand Adex Properties Inc, MerrillLynch, Gordon Capital, Inc, Tai Foong International, CIBC, Ramada Hotels, China Visionand Semi-Tech Corporation, etc.). The triads' companies are also used to pursue theircriminal activities, such as money-laundering and heroitrafficking, as well as assistanceto the ChIS. (S)Being Canadian these businesses are also eligible to receive government subsidiesfor research or classified contracts from Federal Departments. The risk is that after theresearch is done, there results can be transferred to China. Other form of risk is with theaccess gaithrough classifiecontract. As an example, Canadian company underChinesinfluencwain contention focontract to seup anruclassifiedcommunications system linking the main agencies of the Canadian intelligence community. A company in Toronto specializing in video surveillance was originally Canadian, but wasbought by a Chinese multinational. It is impossible at present to say how many or whichCanadian companies are in the same situation. These examples, however, raise questionsabout the integrity of some companies that have already installed security systems forvarious Canadian government institutions or Canadian research industries. (S)Significant portionof somlarge Canadian urban centreare also owned byChinese entrepreneurs. For example, it is estimated that Li Ka-Shing owns with his son atleast one sixth to one third of downtown Vancouver. (S)These "corporate" figures have become an influential presence on the political andeconomic landscapes of Toronto and Vancouver and at the provincial and federal levels.The triads, the tycoons and the ChIS have learned the quick way to gain influence is toprovide finance to the main political parties. Most of the companies identified in thisresearch have contributed, sometimes several tends of thousands of dollars, to the twotraditional political parties, that is, the Liberal and the Progressive-Conservative Parties. (S)The Chinesleadership continues to gaimucdirect or indirecinfluence over theCanadian economy and politics. Having bought significant reaestate holdings andestablished businesses in Canada, China has obtained access to influential figures whoare now or once active at various levels of Canadian society.In many ways, China remains one of the greatest ongoing threats to Canada's national
security and Canadian industry. (S)"Be so subtle that you are invisible.Be so mysterious that you are intangible.Then you will control your rival's fate."
Sun Tzu, The Art of War (c. 509 BC)
1. With the announcement of the return of Hong Kong to China in the mid-1980s, Canadawitnessed the arrival of a substantial immigration and capital flow from that region. Forexamplebetween January 1990 anMarc1997233,077 Hong Kong residentsemigrated to Canada, of whom nearly 70,000
 were in the "entrepreneur" or "investor"category. This exceeded the "family" category over the same period. Although the greatmajority of these migrants were legitimate, the Canadian authorities detected a significantpresence of Chinese organized crime elements, among them, namely the triads and theirassociates, some of whom succeeded in obtaining Canadian citizenship.
 (S)2. Somwealthy HonKonChinese investors and Chinese from Mainland closelyaffiliated or related with the country's leadership and the ChIS also took advantage of the"entrepreneur" and "investor" categories to emigrate in and invest in Canada. Few evenbought or established companies on Canadian soil through family members who hadobtained Canadian citizenship. Intelligence indicates that these specific individuals withthese three groups: triads, Hong Kong investors and people close to China's leadership,have been identified working with concert with the Chinese government to gain influencethrough some of their "financial ventures" in Canada. Some companies which are alsoused to conceal criminal or intelligence activities. At the same time, the ChIS use theiraccess to Canadian businesses through exchanges and technical or student visas to stealclassifieantechnologicainformation. They havgone so faas to set up shellcompanies to pursue their economic and technological information acquisition operations.(S)3. A new triumvirate was born. This cooperation between Hong Kong Chinese businesspeople, the triads and the Beijing leadership adds a new dimension to the known mass linecollection strategy followed by ChIS. Economic, political and security indicators based onfactual data revealed the potential threat and efforts made by the Chinese to obtainCanadian technology, but above all to obtain influence over economic levers and prominentCanadian figures. (S)
4. When Deng Xiaoping came to power in the late 1970s, he introduced his economicreforms with the slogan "to get rich is glorious." To achieve that end, he had to move Chinaonto thinternationamarkets. Thisolationism of thformer regimehowever,
handicapped the Chinese leadership. It therefore turned to the richest Chinese businesspeople of Hong Kong, including, among many others, Li Ka-Shing, Henry Fok Ying-Tung,Wang Foon-Shing, Stanley Ho
and the man who would eventually be chosen by Beijing tohead Hong Kong after the departure of the British, Tung Chee-Wa (C.H. Tung). On 23 May1982, Li Ka-Shing and Henry Fok met with Deng Xiaoping and Zhao Ziyang in Beijing todiscuss the future of the peninsula. Their task would be to advise and educate the Chineseauthorities about the basic rules of capitalism. In return, Beijing gave them privilegedaccess to the vast Chinese economic basin. These powerful international financiers playedan important role in the preparations for the transfer of Hong Kong.(UC)5. In 1984, the British Government of Margaret Thatcher announced that it would returnHong Kong to China on 1st July 1997. This was not news to the Chinese or the rest of theworld since a treaty signed nearly a century before had stipulated that Hong Kong was torevert to China in 1997. The reality of the impending transfer, however, created insecuritythat was strengthened by the tragedy of Tienanmen Square in June 1989. That incidentmade Beijing realize more than ever that it would have to prepare the ground for its arrivalnot only with regard to the financial community but also the population. In the late 1980s,Western intelligence services reported the very active presence in Hong Kong of the UnitedFront Work Department (UFW).
 For that purpose, the UFW was given the responsibilityamonothethings fobuilding alliance with thtriads already affiliated with manybusiness people. As early as 1992, Western intelligence services knew that, Wong ManFong, formerly Head of the New China News Agency, was instructed to inform the triadsbosses that if they agreed not to jeopardize with the transition process and the normalbusiness in Hong Kong, Beijing would assure them that they will be allowed to pursuit theirillegal activities without interference.
 The Beijing authorities also created a front companyin Hong Kong for Wong Man Fong to facilitate his contacts with the triads and so assisttriads groupset up legitimate business in China, particularly in Guangzhou andShanghai...
 Following these negotiations, Deng Xiaoping himself was speaking of thetriads as Chinese "patriotic groups", and the Hong Kong press published a photograph ofCharles Heung, senior officeof thSuYee Onconversinwith thpatriarch'sdaughter.
 At the same time, Interior Minister Tao Siji indicated that there were patrioticmembers among the triads and they were welcome to do business in China. (S)6. The political class has also been targeted by Beijing's leaders. Without any doubts for
the communist masters it was essential to obtain the cooperation of key elements ofinfluential local personalities. Their collaboration or their resistance in China's requestsbefore July 1st was going to make the difference between the possibility to do businesswith China after the transition. To achieve this, political and business people have beenapproached and enthusiastic collaboratorreceived positions within varioutransitioncommittees. For example, in early February 1997, Rita Fan Hsu Lai-Tai was appointed byBeijing, chaiof thHong Kong Special AdministrativRegion (SARProvisionalLegislative Council (LEGCO). Mrs. Fan Hus has been identified as a secret cadre of theChinese Communist Party and an associate of Albert and Sonny Yeung, both officers of theSun Yee On triad. She is also the daughter of one of the leaders of the Shanghai Triadcriminal organization known as the Green Gang before the communist takeover in 1949.This group was known for its political assassinations on behalf of another triad boss,Chang Kai Shek.
7. Canada has always been a preferred destination for the people of Hong Kong. It isestimated that 100,000 Canadians live on the peninsula, and most of them are natives ofthe city. Hong Kong alone has been for the last 10 years the top source of immigration toCanada, with over 500,000 Hong Kong people now living here and accounting for 22percent of all immigration to Canada. Over half of the 66,000 persons who left Hong Kongin 1996 came to Canada. To that must be added 17,000 students, amounting to a fifth of allforeign students in Canada. (C)8. Among legitimate immigrantin recent years, some persons affiliated with or membersof the Chinese triads have succeeded in slipping in and obtaining Canadian citizenship.Several triad officers
 and their associates even have family members residing in Canada.Their choice of Canada was no accident. This country is an excellent place to invest incompanies to launder the profits derived from criminal activities while securing a portion oftheiassetoutside Hong Kong anobtaininCanadian passportMost of theseindividuals are members or associates of the upper echelons of the triads and own or runlarge businesses in Hong Kong. As part of their secret agreements reached with the Beijingleadership,
 these triads now use their Canadian acquisitions to engage in intelligenceactivities, such as intimidating individuals, identifying potential sources of facilitating visit ofChinese delegations on behalf of China. (S)
9. Two other types of investor represent another danger to the Canadian economy, namely,the rich Hong Kong Chinese business people and leaders of the Chinese civilian andmilitary authorities of China. Like the "entrepreneurs" affiliated with the triads, Chineseinvestors from Hong Kong or Beijing have taken control of Canadian companies in varioussectors of theconomySomof thesbusinesses haveveobtained Canadiangovernment classifiecontracts. The threat is more significant because the strategicalliance between the Beijing leadership and Hong Kong tycoons is reinforced by thepowerful ethnic and cultural ties associated with
 This concept rules the links, theobligations or duties and the type of relations between individuals and is a characteristic ofthe Chinese culture. (S)10. In all three cases, their commercial activities have enabled them to develop a positionin the Canadian economy that affords them the opportunity to engage in intelligenceactivities, such as illicitransfer of technologyforeign influence aninterference,identification and cultivation of persons favourable to China, and the acquisition of unduecontrol in important Canadian economic and political circles.(S)11. Even before Hong Kong's official return to the Communists, it was established byseveral Western agencies that their national immigration systems had been affected byillegal ChIS and triad interference. Laurence Leung Ming-Yen, a former director of theHong Kong immigration service, is still under investigation after he had to resign under thepressure of allegations of corruption and illegally disclosinconfidentiainformation aboutresidents of the peninsula. The controversy surrounding Leung was fed by his businessrelationship with the flamboyant tycoon Tsul Tsin Tong, well known for his pro-Beijing viewsand a member of the notorious Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference andPreparatory Committee. The murder of Leung's young daughter in Vancouver in 1993 by acrossbow bolt has still not been solved. The Vancouver police suspect the crime wascommitted by triad members.12. In 1996, an extensive special investigation within the American immigration service ledto the arrest of two former heads of this service stationed in Hong Kong. Jerry WolfStuchiner was found in possession of illegal Honduran passports
 and was recentlyreleased after he accepted to collaborate in the trial of James DeBates.
 James DeBatesand his wife Heddy, an American of Chinese origin, were also arresteand questionedregarding their involvement in Stuchiner'activitieand the illegal entry of Chinese
immigrateintthe United StatesCanada has unfortunately its share of difficulties.Different cases were investigated and like the case of Robert Geddes, a former citizenship judge, whom was charged in May 1997 with 33 counts of fraud and misrepresentation in 13known cases involving Hong Kong Chinese.13. Analysis of the destination of immigrants broken down by Canadian province is anindicator of the concentration of the activities of these groups. Between January 1990 andMarch 1997, 39.1 percent of the persons registered in the entrepreneur and investorcategories chose to settle in British Columbia, particularly in the south Fraser Valley.Ontario for its part received 28.5 per cent of immigrants, who settled mainly in the Torontoarea. This pattern is explained by the large, long-established Chinese communities in theseareas which are essential in the activities of the triads, Chinese investors and ChIS. Underthe same program, 20.6 per cent of such immigrants settled in Quebec while Albertareceived only 7.3 per cent. (S)
14. The influx of Chinese investors who are affiliated with the triads or new associates ofBeijing poses a new challenge to Canada's national security. The central point of thestrategy of the Chinese is first to buy a Canadian company so as to obtain a "local identity",legally concealing subtly their foreign identity. Then, using this acquisition, the Chinese-Canadian company invests heavily or buys other companies in various economic sectors,but always under the Canadian banner. In actual fact, control lies in Hong Kong or Beijing,and the financial benefits or fruits of research, often paid for by Ottawa or the provinces,are likely to make their way to Asia. (S)15. Hand in hand with their ethnicity and their commercial ambitions, the financial networkof the Chinese entrepreneurs associated to the organized crime and to the power in Beijinghas grown exponentially and very rapidly in Canada. Their influence over local, provincialand national political leaders has also increased. In the game of influence, several of theseimportant Chinesentrepreneurs havassociatethemselvewitprestigiouandinfluential Canadian politicians, offering them positions on their boards of directors. Many ofthose companies are China's national companies.16. The analysis of the informatiodemonstrates thatheir attention was not initiallydirected towards sensitive sectors like high technology or other even more sensitive areas,but towards what might be called "soft" sectors such as: real estate, hotels, transportation,oil companies and travel agencies. Commercial sectors that at first sight do not involve any
security risks and did not attract the attention of the Canadian services responsible forsecurity. The scale of their ventures or investments has now made them some of the mostimportant figures present in the major centres, and their decisions to invest in one place oranother are not a matter of indifference to anyone. Such projects are seen by the local ornational business community as a "favour" or a "chance" not to be missed. (S)
17. It is estimated at the present time that over 200 Canadian companies are underChinese control. These business are to be found in myriad sectors of the economy, rangingfrom multinationals to banking, high technology and real estate. Some typical cases arepresented here to illustrate the various scenarios that are clearly worrying for Canadiansecurity. At first site, these individual cases do not seem to be a great threat. It becomes,however more disturbing when the ownership links between various sectors of Canadianenterprises are revealed. (S)
18. CITIC (Canada) China International Trust Investment & Company
(     China International 
Trust & Investment Corporation)
is the largest Chinese operating internationally. It hassubsidiaries operating in several Westercountries, including the United States andCanada (Vancouver). Founded at the end of the 1970s, it now has assets worth US$23billion. Its subsidiary in Canada CITIC BC Inc., opened it doors in 1986. By 1995, itreported a turnover of CDN$250 million (1995). The projections for 1996 aimed for $290million. (UC)19. CITIC was initially established to encourage foreign investment in China. It has sincetaken the lead in Chinese investments outside China, in all areas from real estate toelectronics. In 1979 Beijing appointed to CITIC's board of directors three Hong Kongfinancial giants, Li Ka-Shing, Henry Fok Ying-Tung and Wang Foon-ShingWith theirassistance, in the following years, the Beijing acquired important companies such as CathyPacific Airlines, Hong Kong Telecom and Star TV. In Canada, it is estimated that CITIC hasinvested nearly $500 million to buy up businesses in certain areas, such as Celgar PulpMill in British Columbia, Nova Corp Petrochemical in Alberta, real estate through HangChong Investments Ltd. and hotels. Eventually, CITIC developed also close business linkswith Power Corprationn. (S)20. CITIrecently attracted Americamediattentioin thscandaover illegal
contributions to thUS DemocratiParty and influence-peddlinby thChinesegovernment (see section below). CITIC, China Resources and the Lippo Group (in which inboth Li Ka-Shing is a large shareholder) are at the centre of the affair. CITIC chairman,Wang Jan, is also chairman of Poly Technology (see next section). CITIC has repeated thegesture by contributing through its Canadian subsidiaries to Canadian Political Parties.(UC)21. Norincand Poly Technology (Poly Group). Northern Industrial Corporatio(Norinco)and Poly Technologies (a subsidiary of Poly Group) are both owned by China and underthe control of CITIC. They have subsidies around the world, including Canada (Montreal)and the United States. Poly Group was until recently head by Deng Xiaoping's son-in-law,He Ping, and is part of the entrepreneurial drive of the People's Liberation Army (PLA).Several large quantities of arms manufactured by Norinco have been confiscated on Indianreserves, especially those of thMohawks. In May 1996, US authorities what theydescribed as the biggest arms seizure on American soil, confiscating 2,000 AK-47assaultrifles and other military weapons from a warehouse in California. The US-based Chineserepresentatives of Poly Technologies and Norinco were arrested in connection with thisaffair. Although the final destination of the arms has not been determined, the Amerindians"Warriors" and American militia trails are strongly suspected by US authorities. (S)22. In another incident, the Rex International Development company of Hong Kong, inwhich Norinco is the majority shareholder, is currently under investigation possibly subjectto prosecution for exporting components for the manufacturing of chemical weapons toIran. Rex was established in 1982 as a joint venture with Norinco by Tsui Tsin-Tong, afinancial partner of Li Ka-Shing. Tsui filed an application to emigrate to Canada in 1985which has been renewed several times. His case is still not settled because he has neversatisfied the Canadian authorities by providing adequate explanations of his contacts withthe PLA and the ChIS. Silver City Development Ltd., which holds shares in Rex, has beenused for several years by the ChIS and the Chinese leadership as an investment front andcover. (S)23. Through the power of its multinationals industries and the billions of dollars theygenerate, China has been able to establish itself in the Western economy. This gave to thecountry an enormous advantage in the pursuit of gaining influence. In return through thesesubsidies and influences, they are able to open channels to facilitate access to Westernpower and traffic of illegal weapons and technology. (S)
Banks and financial institutions
24. CIBC and the Hong Kong Bank of Canada. The banking industry is one if not the mostimportant economic leverage in this country. To control or to be able to influence theactions of a bank gives to a single or a group of important shareholders a very influentialand privilege position in our society. In this domain, Canada might be in a disadvantageposition. Of the G-7 countries, Canada has the fewest banks that is five major institutionsincluding the CIBC which in return creates the highest concentration of assets in the samehands. Banks, as a whole, hold 57 percent of industrial shares, 54 percent of privatedeposits and 65 per cent of personal credit. Some analysts predict that the Canadianbanks will hold 70 percent of the mutual fund market by the year 2000. (UC)25.Rich investors like Li Ka-Shing and even the Chinese regime itself got interested inthe 1980s to invest in banks and Canadian banks too. Li Ka-Shing owns 40 percent of theCIBC, which is the largest single individual share holder. He is also in partnership with theCIBC in many companielike development projects like of thland of Expo 86 inVancouver (CDA $3 Billion). This bank seems to be particularly used by Chinese investors.The 1980s saw several bank acquisitions and mergers in this country. The ContinentalBank was sold to Lloyd s Bank Canada which in turn was bought by the Hong Kong Bankof Canada. The latter is the sixth largest bank in Canada, and the largest foreign one. In1986, it acquired the Bank of British Columbia.Li Ka-Shing and Stanley Ho
are share holders and on the Board of Directors of the HongKong Bank in Hong Kong which owns the subsidiary in Canada. The Government of Chinais also a share holder of that bank. (UC)26. Wood Gundy, Merrill Lynch and Gordon Capital Corp. Other important financial sectorlinked to banks is the brokerage house business. In Canada, it is dominated by a few largebanks. In 1993, eight of the largest Canadian brokerage institutions were owned by fivebanks and controlled 70 percent of the securities market. In 1988, CIBC bought 65 percentof the shares of Wood Gundy at a cost of CDA $190 million, or three times the book value.(UC)27. In 1990, the CIBC took over Merrill Lynch Canada, one of the eight largest Canadianinstitutions. Merrill Lynch International is owned by Thomas Fung (see below, China Vision)and Li Ka-Shing business associate. Another prestigious old Canadian firm is GordonCapital Corp. became 50.1 per cent owned by Richard Li, son of Li Ka-Shing, in October1995. That is two years after Richard began to work for the firm. After Richard joined the
board, William (Ken) Davidson, former vice-president and executive director of the CIBC,received a promotion to the board, and Bob Fung the position of vice-president. His sonMark often travels on Team Canada trips to China Again, it is not only the financial leveragethat should be noticed but the gain of influence this sector offers. (S)
High technology
28. Semi-Tech CorporationSemi-Tech Corporation is a Canadian multinational corporationbased in Markham, Ontario. It was formed from various public companies listed on severalshock exchanges, including Toronto, Montreal, New York, Tokyo, Osaka, Nagoya, Frankfurtand Hong Kong, and has revenues of over US $3.5 billion. This corporation, and itschairman James Ting in particular, have business ties with China. Stanley Ho is theprincipal shareholder through his company Shun Tak (Hong Kong) and sits on Semi-Tech'sboard. (UC)29. This company has concentrated in particular on information technology, establishingSemi-TecMicrocomputers Ltd., Semi-Tech MicroElectronics Corp.Semi-TechElectronics, Singer and STM Systems Corp. The last of these was established by themerger of Data Crown (Canada) and Canada Systems Group, two companies that countvarious federal government departments among theiclientansomof whoseemployees are regularly in contracwith Chinese diplomatirepresentatives. Of particularnote is the fact that Canada Systems Group had applied to undertake the development ofCOSICS, the Canadian On-line Secure Information and Communication System that wasto link the Department of External Affairs, the RCMP, CSIS and National Defence. Theproject was suspended by the federal government due to the lack of financial resources.(S)30. China HuanenGroup, Unipec Canada and Goldpark China Ltd. On January 1997Canadian newspapers announced that the Chinese companies China Huaneng GroupGroup Hong Kong Ltd. (CHG(HK)) anChinInternational United PetroleuandChemicals Co. (Unipec) had concluded an agreement whereby Huaneng would buy 70percent of the shares of Unipec Canada Ltd. Unipec Canada Ltd., in turns, holds 57percent of the shares of Goldpark China Ltd. of Toronto which, holds exclusive world rightsfor the productions of photographic security systems. CHG(HK) is a subsidiary of thefifteenth largest Chinese State Company, China Huaneng Group. Unipec for its part is agiant of the Chinese oil industry which has sought in recent years to diversify its activities.It is also famous for the many lawsuits against it and for its illegal transactions involving
large arms sales to Iraq for oil. (UC)
Entertainment and Media
31. It has been known for several years that the Hong Kong triads, particularly Sun YeeOn, control the Chinese entertainment industry. In Canada, some promotion companieswith affiliations to Chinese organized crime and the ChIS have organized tours for artistsfrom China and Hong Kong. Significant investments have also been made by these groupsin the Canadian Chinese-language media, including the Chinese-language televisionindustry which is integrated into the general Canadian television system. (S)32. Charles Y.M. Kwan Productions. Charles Kwan Yee Man
has been active in the Asianlive entertainment business industry for years through his companies, including ChinaCultural Promotions Limited and Charles Y.M. Kwan Promotions Inc. In the course of hisbusiness activities Kwan is regularly in contact with prominent members of the Hung Lockand Sun Yee On triads. He also maintains relations with the Chinese Freemasons (CFM)in Toronto which have always been used by the ChIS to identify potential sources andpromote Chinese policies. (S)33. North American Studio (Canada). Although this company closed its doors in 1996, itwas well known in police circles for its criminal origins. Also using the names North American (Canada) Motion Picture Corp. and North American (Canada) Television Corp.,this company has been under the control of the Sun Yee On triad since its beginning. Thefirm attracted media attention recently as a result of the legal sage of Miranda Yuen, anemployee of North American Studio and the ex-wife of the top boss of the Wo Hop To triad.In the early 1990s, members of the Sun Yee On triad bought a warehouse in Markham,Ontario which was converted at a cost of $7 million into a film and television productionstudio. The group has since been the subject of ongoing investigation by police authoritiesin connection with certain criminal activities. Some of the company's executives wereregularly in contact with representatives of the Chinese diplomatic missions in Canada andwere regularly involved in Canadian political circles like serving as intermediaries inorganizing a dinner between the mayors of Shanghai and Toronto. (S)34. China Vision and Fairchild Entertainment. China Vision is a pay-TV station in Toronto,establisheby FranciCheung in 1981In 1991 it haabou110,000 Canadiansubscribers of Chinese origin in the Toronto, Edmonton, Calgary and Vancouver areas.Pro-democracy groups across Canada submitted briefs to the CRTC that Cheungreceived financial assistance from the Chinese government, and that China Vision's reports
on China were approved and influenced by the government of that country. (UC)35. In 1992, the CRTC entertained an initial offer of purchase for China Vision. This offerwas made by John Sham, a Toronto resident, Hong Kong film promoter and an employeeof Television Broadcast Ltd. of Hong Kong. Sham is an associate of Charles Heung, asenior officer of the Sun Yee On triad. The potential buyers of China Vision included JohnSham and North America(Canada) Television ProductioCorporation, which wasaffiliated with the Sun Yee On triad.
 This offer was withdrawn following information givento the CRTC by Canadian authorities. (S)36. In 1993, Thomas Fung of Fairchild Communication Ltd. of Vancouver submitted anoffetpurchase China Vision tthe CRTfor CD$9.25 millionFairchildCommunications Ltd. is 80 per cent owned by Happy Valley Investments Ltd., also ofVancouver, and 20 per cent by Television Broadcasts Ltd. of Hong Kong, the largest globalproducer of Chinese-language programming. Various Canadian groups of Chinese originopposed Fairchild's purchase offer because they were concerned that this sale would openthe door for the Chinese government to influence Canadian television news broadcasting.They argue thstatiowoulbe vulnerablto politicapressurfrom thChinesegovernment, especially after 1997, and because the Hong Kong media often practisedcensorship where China was concerned for fear of offending the government of thatcountry. Although the CRTC shared some of the groups' concerns, in October 1993 itapproved the purchase of China Vision by Fairchild Communications Ltd, granting it alicense for four years. It should also be pointed out that Fung has bought an importantamount of shares in Hollinger and Southam, two press giants in Canada. (C)37. HonKonTelecommunications and Wharf Cable Ltd. In March 1997, these twocompanies formed in consortium with Li Ka-Shing's Hutchinson Whampoa Ltd., Cheng Yu-Tong's New World Development Co. and Heung (Jimmy) Wah-Shing's Win Film Co. JimmyHeung is known in Hong Kong as a senior officer of the largest triad, Sun Yee On. He is theyounger brother of Heung Wah-Yim, the Dragon Head of this group, who was officiallyidentified in 1992 by the US Senate's Standing Committee on Chinese Organized Crime. Theoutput of these companies is used by the Canadian Chinese-language media. It should benotethat thcompanwabought by anotheHong Kong companyFairchildCommunications, and CITIC is also the owner of Hong Kong Telecom. The productions ofall the above mentioned companies are used by the Canadian Chinese language media.
This transactions highlights well the close relationship among Chinese business people,the triads and China's power. (S)
Food-Services industry
38. Tai Foong International. Triad members or their associates are also involved in thefood-services industry, witness the example of Tai Foong International of Mississauga,Ontario. The company's chairman and managing director, David Lam, is affiliated with theKung Lok triad.
 Tai Foong International sells seafood around the world. The companyhas offices in Vancouver, Calgary and Montreal with headquarters in Mississauga. It hasdivisions in the United States, specifically Las Vegas and Seattle, and in Hong Kong. According to our information, Tai Foong International is believed to be involve in importingheroin into Canada from Hong Kong.
 In addition, various members of the managementhavfoseverayears maintained regular contacts with Chinestradanmilitaryrepresentatives in Canada, organizing meetings, paid visits of Chinese delegations and soon. Several, including David Lam, have travelled frequently to China on business. (S)
Real estate and hotels
39. Everywhere in the world the core of Chinese economic activity is located in large urbancentres. In Canada, the bulk of the country's economy is concentrated around a few largecities only. Real estate has always been a preferred area for the Chinese, and several havebuilt large fortunes from it. In itself real estate is not a obvious threat to the security ofCanada but it becomes an excellent vehicle to gain access to local politicians and theirinfluence and power. You own one building is one thing, you own 10 or 30 commercialbuildings and your influence is considerable. If you are located in the heart of the businessactivities, you are the focus of attention. The business of centres of Toronto, Vancouverand in part Montreal are now in large portion owned by Hong Kong or Beijing. (C)40. Grand Adex Properties Inc. and Concord Pacific Development Corp. Grand Adex iswholly-owned by the Kaumo Hui and Li Ka-Shing families. In 1987, the two tycoons' sonsTerry Hui and Victor Li, helped Li Ka-Shing acquire 80 hectares of Expo 1986 land inVancouver for Concord Pacific. They are now pursuing a residential development mega-project estimated to be worth $3 billion. In March 1997, Grand Adex and Concord Pacificrepeatethsame scenario by goininto partnership with thToronto companyTrizecHahn Corp (80 percent foreign own), obtaining a $2 billion project and 18 hectares ofprime land west of Skydome in downtown Toronto. They also obtained an exclusive lease
on the CN tower for the next 35 years with two possible 15-year extensions. At 33, TerryHui, who has now obtained Canadian citizenship, heads up these two companies and isconsidered the most important property developer in Vancouver. (UC)41. World Financial Properties. In 1992, when the Reichman brothers' Olympia and YorkDevelopment company faced a serious financial crisis, the CIBC was the Reichmans'largest Canadian creditor, and the Bank of Hong Kong the largest overall creditor. Li Ka-Shing's Dragon Holdings Ltd. acquired 51 percent of Olympia and York Development'sNew York office towers for $20 million, and, in 1996, bought Olympia with the assistance ofthe Bronfman family, renaming it World Financial Properties. (UC)42. Ramada Hotels, Harbour Castle (Toronto) and others. Large hotel chains and almost allthe prestige hotels in Canadian urban centres are now owned by Chinese private or stateinterests. This is an easy service sector and is used mainly to generate income whileincreasing property holdings. Such is the case of the Ramada international chain, ownedby Stanley Ho (25 hotels in Canada), the Sutton Place in downtown Toronto, acquired in1993 for CDA $29 million and the Meridien Hotel in Vancouver. The Harbour Castle Westinin Toronto was bought by Li Ka-Shing in 1981 at a price of $93 million and a further $20million payment in 1989. Other examples, the Carlton Inn and the Carlton Place in Torontoare owned by CITIC. This, of course, is only a tiny part of what is to be found in Vancouver,Montreal and other Canadian centres. (S)
Universities and research centres
Sections 43-45 dealinwith the University of Toronto and University of Western Ontarioare missing from our copy of the report.
Source Notes
1 See Appendixes I and II, tables on Immigration from Hong Kong2 See Project Stopover. CID/RCMP.3 In 1996 FORBES magazine estimated the "official" personal fortune of Li Ka-Shing atUS$ 10.5 billion, Henry Fok Ying-Tung at $2.5 billion and Stanley Ho at $3.1 billion.(UC)4 The United Front Work Department is one of the five components of the ChIS. SeeCSIS Report 95-6/33, The Future of Hong Kong: New Dogma, Old Tricks5 In May 1996 the publisher of the Hong Kong tabloid Surprise Weekly, Leung Tin-wai,received two individuals in his office at height of the day. They cut off his arms with akitchen knife because the newspaper was preparing to publish an article unfavourableto Beijing in relation to Hong Kong's return in July 1997. (UC)6 Wong himself recently confirmed this information in a public conference in HongKong after defecting to Western authorities.7 See Project Sunset. CID/RCMP8 See Appendix III, Origin and Description of the Triads.
9 See Appendix IV, Profile of Typical Triad Member.10 SeCSIS reporRepor95-6/06OrganizeCrimLinkto thIntelligenceServices of China and Taiwan.11 See Appendix V, Guanxi or Networking.12 Several thousands of Honduran passports were reported stolen last year.13 Stanley Ho, the Macao casino tycoon, is Honorary Counsel of Honduras in Macao.14 Stanley Ho holds a monopoly on the six casinos on the Island of Macao whichalone bring in US$6 billion a year. (UC)15 See Project Shehang. CID/RCMP16 See Project Shehang. CID/RCMP17 ibid.18 ibid.
46. ***All areas of the Canadian economy are targeted, but high technology is the one most atrisk. Several cases of theft of Canadian proprietary information and/or technology havebeen reported to and investigated by Canadian authorities. For example, Ontario Hydrobelieves it was the victim of theft of information in the nuclear technology field by anindividual of Chinese origin. This individual sent unauthorized faxes (some containinghours worth of data) to a telephone number in China, associated with the State Scienceand Technology Commission. In another case, a Chinese employee of a major computercompany based in Canada was accused of copying the company's proprietary informationonto diskette, for the purposes of selling the information to China. In a third instance, aCanadian company alleged that one of their former employees, who had previously servedin the Chinese military, stole proprietary information regarding energy technology and soldit to the Chinese government. (S)47. The Chinese government also takes advantage of growing business ties betweenChina and Canada to provide cover for intelligence activities. For example, a companyowneby Chinese-Canadiasponsorewhat waostensiblChinesbusinessdelegation to come to Canada. In reality, the "delegation" was comprised of Ministry ofState Security officials travelling to Canada to conduct an intelligence operation. Anotherdelegation that travelled to Canada under the cover of representing a Chinese companywas actually composed of officers from a sensitive sector of the People's Liberation Army,whwere attempting to make arrangements to purchase secure communicationstechnology for military purposes.48. The ChIS do not hesitate to expend great energy on pursuing their activities. They haveestablished companies on Canadian soil solely for traditional and economic espionagepurposes. These companies are used as cover for ChIS agents to help gain them anentree into Canadian business circles. These front companies have been observed to havecontacts with the triads in Canada. (S)
49. One of the means used by the Hong Kong business people and triads associated toBeijing is to seek influence and support among Canadian politicians by financing politicalparties. This practice, is not unique to Canada. Recently, a stir was caused in the USmedia over the illegal Chinese funding of the Democratic Party. Over 2,000 Americancompanies suspected of being used by Chinese are currently under investigation by the
FBI. In 1993, Britain was wracked by a similar scandal when over £1.5 million (or nearlyCDN $3 million) was donated to the British Conservative Party by Hong Kong financierssuch as Li Ka-Shing (CDA $1.8 million), Stanley Ho ($200,000), Tsu Tsin-Tong ($100,000)and even C.H. Tung ($70,000) who is now Beijing's man in Hong Kong. (C)50. Canada also allows "Canadian corporate citizens" to make financial contributions topolitical parties, but the parties are obliged by the Canada Elections Act to report theamounts. Many of the companies identified in this research have contributed sometimesseveral tens of thousands of dollars to the two traditional political parties, the Liberals andthe Conservatives. As examples, in 1994, Merrill Lynch Canada gave the Liberal party$20,432.94. Between 1991 and 1194, Husky Oil, which is owned by Li Ka-Shing, alonecontributed over $100,000 to the same two parties. North American Studio (Canada),which was affiliated with the triads, also contributed. Set within their Canadian and regionalcontexts, the total amount of these contributions to local organizations is substantial.Further, an "entrepreneur" may have several businesses in an area that will also contributeto the parties' funds. In the end, large sums are distributed by various hands but from thesame wallet. It is precisely the total amount distributed at several places that makes theinterplay of influence and political “friendships" so important. (S)51. The information presented here represent only a very partial view of the real situationand brings questions to the amount of influence gain through donations. To obtain acomplete picture, further research would be needed. (S)
52. The key to the Chinese riddle lies in understanding the unique culture of the Chinesepeople.
 The core of this culture is to be found in the importance of developing andmaintaininvery broad network of privilegecontracts baseon thfact of beingChinese, your backers (Hou Tui) and an individual's obligations towards others (Guanxi).Furthermore, no other ethnic group in the world can equal the economic power of theChinese diaspora. Their numbers are estimated at over 60 million, and their financial poweris put conservatively at over US $2 trillion. With the wave of immigration from Hong Kong,this financial power has grown again exponentially. Most Southeast Asian countries havelong found their national economics to be dominated sometimes by as much as 90 percent, by the Chinese community. While perhaps not supporting its political views, the Chineseretain a strong attachment to the Motherland remains. The Chinese diaspora is present on
every continent and has always been, willingly or not, the point of entry into and the centreof operations in a foreign country for the ChIS and the triads. (S)
53. Becausof its strategic alliance witsomimportant and influential HonKongbusiness people, and with organized crime syndicates, the Chinese leadership appears tobe today in a position to developing a potential of influence over the international marketand particularly on the Canadian economy and political life of the country. Why Canada?Because Canada has always been oddly favourable to the Chinese. It has also a largeChinese community and very important economic ties with Hong Kong. Having boughtsignificant real-estate holdings and established companies in Canada, gain some accessto political leaders and business people, it is now in a position to seek power by influence.What make it difficult to argue against it the fact that most of it has been done legally. Evenmore, the threat is manifold and very elaborated in a complicated web of businesses. Itdiffuses itself through a not so tangible network. If you look at a single individual, the threatdoes not seem to be there but because of their associations and their alliances with China,the facts analyzed, leads one to the belief that a gain of influence has been the object of aconcerted plan that constitutes a security threat to Canada. (S)54. Some Chinese owners are now in a position to use the Canadian companies they havebought and some political channels that they have developed to obtain subsidies forresearch and even classified contracts. Once access is gained, nothing is in place to preventthem from repatriating the fruits of the research or classified information to China. (S)55. The triads and their associates also used these positions to transfer large sums ofmoney derived from criminal activities intthe Canadian economyBuying Canadianproperty or a Canadian business affords a "window" of opportunity to pursue their illegalactivities in Canada, such as money-laundering and drug-trafficking. (S)56. One of the important dimension of the Chinese financial holdings is its ownership overimportanCanadian real estateThnervcentre of thCanadian economisconcentrated in three or four large urban centres. Already, a large part of these financialcentres are in the hands of Chinese interests.
 Canada is not the only country where weobserve this situation. One has only to look at the profile of the Southeast Asian economyor the investigations currently underway in the United States. The Canadian economy,howeveris more vulnerable because of many legislative loop holes governing finance and
the concentration of financial power in the hands of few. The potential of threat also lies inthe fact that, at present, the foreign power, China, is in a position to influence theCanadian economy and politics. (S)57. Several Canadian companies in the security field, such as computer management andvideo surveillance, are now owned by Chinese interests. When a contract is awarded byfederal departments to private companies, the usual security investigations are done onthe persons who will eventually be working on a project or installing equipment. Now a newthreat seems to be itself in relation with the ownership of some companies. The case ofData Crown is a good example of this situation. Although some verifications to investigateforeign companies are done by a group of people at the Department of Public Work, it isnot impossible that this shortcoming has already been exploited by no one is able at themoment to answer this question with any certainty because of the complexity of theramifications involving Chinese companies owned or the ones with some special interestwith China. (S)58. There is no longer any doubt that the emigration process in Hong Kong has beenabused, and that individuals are being corrupted in some of the Western immigrationservices. The entry of triad members and the cases of 13 illegal migrants laid against anex-judge of the immigration services are not the only cases of malpractices and hadcaused in the past problems to the immigration system. This situation places Canada in avulnerable position regarding illegal immigration and shows the interest by the Chinese ofthe Canadian immigration system. (S)59.China remains the top  threat above all others  to Canada's national security andindustries. There is no longer any doubt that the ChIS have been able to gaininfluence on important sectors of the Canadian economy, including education, real estate,high technology, security and many others. In turn, it gave them access to economic,political and some military intelligence of CanadaThe great difficulties in determining thethreat is that it is diverse and multi-layered. It diffuses itself through elaborated networkshold by a cultural practise that still is not well understood by Western Services. (S)

Dr. Nancy Olivieri

Dr. Nancy Olivieri a scientist at the Hospital for Sick Children and clinical professor at the University of Toronto discovered in 1998 evidence suggesting that a drug she was testing might be life threatening. Apotex Inc. which partly funded her research, insisted that she should not publish her results and threatened legal action if she were to inform the patients in the trials. The U of T refused to intervene, in spite of its responsibilities for public health and for scientific integrity. Critics observe that the U of T was at that time negotiating with Apotex Inc. for a multimillion dollar donation for a new building.

After independent investigations vindicated Dr. Olivieri, she took a leave of absence to pursue her research. In 2004, after six years of legal proceedings, Olivieri reached a settlement with Apotex which included a substantial payment to her. However, the company then refused to pay, claiming that Olivieri had violated the terms of the settlement by 'disparaging' the company or its drug.

In 2008, after another four years of litigation, Apotex was ordered by the Ontario Superior Court to perform all the terms of the settlement. The company immediately announced its intention to challenge this ruling, and launched a new lawsuit against Dr. Olivieri.

  • Dr. Nancy Olivieri | Canadian Association of University Teachers

The case of University of Toronto clinician, Dr. Nancy Olivieri, gained international attention when her research at the Hospital for Sick Children in the late 1990s ...

  • The Drug Trial: Nancy Olivieri and the Science Scandal that Rocked the Hospital for Sick Children - May 3 2005 by Miriam Shuchman

  • Medical research ethics whistleblower Nancy Olivieri honored again | Health News Review | May 31, 2012

One of the saddest stories about drug company influence on clinical trials and on the integrity of research is the story of Dr. Nancy Olivieri.

Richard Colvin

Richard Colvin was a senior diplomat posted in Kandahar and Kabul from April 2006 to October 2007. Starting in May 2006 he repeatedly raised concerns about the potential for torture of prisoners handed over by the Canadian military to Afghan police. He raised these concerns to senior officials at Foreign Affairs and National Defence, copying 79 different people across government.

During a subsequent investigation conducted by the Military Police Complaints Commission, all but one of 22 potential witnesses subpoenaed by the Commission declined to testify, allegedly after receiving threatening letters from the Department of Justice. Only Colvin agreed to testify and his allegations became public in October 2009.

  • Richard Colvin: Portrait of a whistleblower | Toronto Star | Nov 21, 2009

Richard Colvin took the place of envoy Glyn Berry, who was killed by a suicide bomber in Afghanistan. (PAWEL DWULIT FOR THE TORONTO ...

Bob Stenhouse

Bob Stenhouse, a much-decorated, 18-year veteran of the force with extensive undercover experience, landed in hot water in 1999 when he disclosed RCMP media strategies for outlaw biker gangs to Yves Lavigne which appear in the book Hells Angels at War. Frustrated with a lack of enforcement initiatives, Stenhouse believed the national strategy was merely a public relations exercise. Stenhouse was found guilty of discreditable conduct and ordered to resign. A court ruled his disciplinary hearing was unfair and ordered a new one which ruled he should be reinstated. In June of 2004 he was reinstated and then immediately suspended with pay while the RCMP awaits a new court-ordered disciplinary hearing.

  • Undercover Mountie: Bob Stenhouse was a cop's cop -- until he broke ... | Maclean's | Nov 26, 2001

Undercover Mountie: Bob Stenhouse was a cop's cop -- until he broke the ... in a culture marked for its conformity -- an RCMP whistle-blower.

Perry Dunlop

Constable Perry Dunlop, a police officer in Cornwall, Ontario, uncovered evidence of an alleged pedophile ring. When he discovered that Cornwall police were not taking action to prosecute the suspects he alerted the Childrens' Aid Society. As a result, he was charged with contravening his duties under the Police Act. He was subsequently cleared of any wrongdoing, as judges ruled that his duties to Children’s Aid superseded his responsibilities as a police officer. Dunlop subsequently left Cornwall and moved to the west coast to escape taunts and threats against himself and his family.

A massive petition from Cornwall residents eventually spurred an OPP probe "Project Truth' which laid 114 charges against 15 men. These mostly foundered for various reasons, but in other prosecutions five paedophiles with connections to the members of the alleged ring were eventually convicted. Once the court cases were complete, a long-promised public inquiry was launched, which has been the subject of much controversy. In 2008 Dunlop was jailed for 7½ months for refusing to testify at the inquiry, saying that he had lost confidence in the justice system.

  • Perry Dunlop being persecuted as a whistleblower; Former officer's actions have taken courage | Mar 6, 2008

Perry Dunlop being persecuted as a whistleblower; Former officer's actions have taken courage.

Dr. John O'Connor

Dr. John O'Connor, an Alberta doctor, was startled to encounter several cases of a very rare cancer in Fort Chipewyan, in the Athabasca oil patch. His further investigations revealed unusually high rates of cancers among the residents, and he called for a thorough health review of the community. His findings contributed to concerns that oil extraction operations may be contaminating the environment with carcinogenic chemicals.

In what was perceived as an attempt to muzzle him, Health Canada doctors lodged four complaints against O'Connor with his professional body – charges which could have resulted in the loss of his license. Doctors were alarmed by this incident, since such reports from doctors in the field have been vital to the detection of new diseases such as AIDS. Consequently, in 2007 the Canadian Medical Association passed a resolution (#103) calling for whistleblower protection for doctors – apparently to protect them from Health Canada.

  • Whistleblowing Alberta oil sands doctor fired abruptly | National Observer | May 11, 2015

So hastily was this letter of dismissal sent to Dr. John O'Connor, on-call family physician for the 1200 citizens of the remote community of Fort ...

Bernard Payeur

Bernard Payeur, a computer specialist with Foreign Affairs, wrote a financial analysis program which, to his astonishment, revealed that missions were under-reporting exchange rate gains, thus illegally keeping public money for themselves to the tune of about $7 million worldwide per year (1983 dollars). When his reports were shared with DFAIT senior management, they refused to acknowledge or deal with the issue and Payeur was told by a colleague that it was 'standard practice' for missions to keep 50% of these gains, thus apparently enabling some people to enjoy a more lavish lifestyle at the taxpayers' expense.

Payeur was subsequently moved to a tiny office and ordered to reproduce his massive computer-generated reports using only a pencil and desk calculator, without access to the source data. When he failed this impossible task he was given a punitive performance appraisal rating him the lowest grade possible on all 11 attributes, thus rendering him unemployable. He appealed this harsh treatment up to the Supreme Court of Canada without success. During the kafka-esque hearings his bosses admitted under oath that they were facilitating the theft of public funds, but no action was ever taken against any of them.

  • Shooting the Messenger: A Whistleblower's Tale | Boreal Books

by Bernard Payeur, March 22, 2013

Linda Merk

Linda Merk discovered that the president and business manager of Ironworkers Union Local 771 were double dipping on their travel expenses, so she raised the matter "in house” to union senior management and was fired. The union argued that double-dipping was not explicitly prohibited by its bylaws. Merk fought against her dismissal all the way to the Supreme Court of Canada, which in a precedent-setting decision, ruled in her favour.

  • Supreme Court: She was right | | Nov 25, 2005

Whistleblower Linda Merk has lost thousands of dollars, been without her job for four years, and fought at four levels of court -- but a win in the ...

Dr. Barry Armstrong

Dr. Barry Armstrong is the military doctor who in 1993 challenged his superiors over the death of a Somali, Achmed Aruush. Military reports claimed that the Somali had been shot in the front, that Airborne soldiers were defending the base and that "everybody behaved exactly as they were supposed to." But Armstrong's examination found that Aruush had been shot in the back.

Fearing that the incident would be swept under the carpet, Armstrong shared his concerns with his wife Jennifer, who took her husband's story to the press, triggering a public outcry for an inquiry. Among the attempts to smear Armstrong: Lt.-Col. Carol Mathieu described him as "certifiable" and others said that he had plans to sell morphine on the black market.

The Somalia inquiry ultimately exposed a sordid story of failed military leadership and an apparent cover-up that reached into high places. The final report excoriated many of the top officers in the Canadian Forces including three separate Chiefs of the Defence Staff.

  • Somalia Affair: The whistleblower | CBC Archives

Barry Armstrong speaks for the first time about what he believes happened in ... Dr. Russell Brown, a Canadian anesthesiologist in Somalia, agreed with Maj.

Bob Thomson

On 11 September 1973, General Augusto Pinochet and the Armed Forces of Chile overthrew the democratic government of President Salvador Allende. In the violence that followed, thousands of Chileans were killed or disappeared and tens of thousands were detained, tortured and imprisoned.

Bob Thomson, a young employee of the Canadian foreign aid programme (CIDA) saw secret telexes from the then Canadian ambassador to Chile, Andrew Ross, recommending that Canada swiftly recognize Pinochet and refuse entry to those fleeing his regime. Concerned that the government was being misinformed, Thomson leaked the cables to a Member of Parliament.

This created a huge controversy, as a result of which Ottawa reversed its foreign policy and in the following years, Canada brought 7,000 Chilean refugees out of one of the most brutal Latin American dictatorships and welcomed them to new lives in Canada.

Thomson was never able to work again in the public service. On the 40-year anniversary of the coup, Canadian Journalists for Free Expression awarded Thomson its 2013 Integrity Award.

  • Bob Thomson: Blowing the whistle on Chile's 1973 brutality | National Post | December 6, 2013

When one of my colleagues identified me as that whistleblower, the Chilean-Canadian got up, ...


Selwyn Pieters was fired after going public about wrongdoing at the Immigration and Refugee Board, while the board said it axed him for tarnishing its image by lying to the media. He argued in Federal Court documents that his dismissal was in retaliation for blowing the whistle.

Lesley Anthony and Jean Bowen were hailed as heroes after they secretly videotaped the plight of an elderly woman in a Versa-Care Long-Term-Care Home. Lesley Anthony is being accused of professional misconduct for her actions.

Jane Shorten and Mike Frost were both employees of the Communications Security Establishment (CSE) which conducts electronic surveillance: CSE is the Canadian counterpart of the NSA in the USA. Shorten and Frost revealed that CSE was spying on Canadians (such as Margaret Trudeau and Quebec separatists) and on citizens of friendly countries (for example acting on behalf of Britain’s secret service to monitor dissenting ministers in Margaret Thatcher's cabinet).

Pierre Blais, a government research chemist in the 1980's, became concerned with the potential harmful effects of breast implants on women. When he was invited to testify as an expert witness in lawsuits involving the implants, the department ordered him not to communicate his findings, and blocked his appearance. He wrote memos asking for further investigation and a voluntary halt to sales of the implants. After increasingly stifling his research, the government fired him in 1989. He was reinstated by court order, but left to work independently in his field.

Bruce Brine who had 22 years of policing and a 1994 governor-general's award for exemplary service, was fired from his job as chief of the Halifax ports police in 1995 after he made allegations that senior officials with the Canada ports police were getting kickbacks from the Hells Angels. The ports police were disbanded in 1998 and the ongoing investigations were abandoned -- just as they were in Vancouver in 1997. Much of the material from the files of those investigations was listed as missing when Mounties began to pursue his obstruction complaint. Nova Scotia Human Rights Commission awarded him a cash settlement, an apology and a letter of reference from the port authority.

Gary Lovett got fired for telling the media that Canada's base in Afghanistan didn't have adequate fire-fighting gear. Though his pay came from the Canadian government, it flowed through a contractor, SNC-Lavalin.

Detective Ron Robertson came forward in 1999 with concerns that the Edmonton force had been infiltrated by organized crime. In January 2000, it was revealed that the Alberta RCMP had been investigating allegations of biker infiltration into Edmonton city police for seven years. While various police investigations have found nothing amiss, CBC Radio investigators have continued to uncover more evidence to support Robertson's claims.

Michael Sanders, financial analyst, Office of the Superintendent for Financial Institutions, blew the whistle on the absence of sufficient safeguards to protect taxpayers against the collapse of major financial institutions. He was fired.

Bernard Dussault, chief actuary, Canada pension plan, reported that he was asked to modify numbers to paint a more positive state of the CPP. He was fired.


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