Chinese Concepts and
Capabilities of Information
- Means of information operations and automated command systems, information measures, sound organisational structures and advance weaponry and equipment, which possesses an integrated and complete array of information support and operational means.
- Promotion of informationalisation of missiles and equipment, and improvements in communications and reconnaissance capabilities, especially of the. Second Artillery Force.
- A series of projects on military information systems have been completed and information technology elements have been incorporated into battle systems and development support to military information structure has been guaranteed.
- Development of new military and operational theories and increased emphasis on training for information warfare.
- Integration of military and civil resources for efficient information mobilisation mechanisms for exploiting synergies.
Importance of Information Warfare
People’s Warfare in Information Warfare Context
Definition and Goals of Information Warfare
- Substantive destruction, the use of hard weapons to destroy enemy headquarters, command posts, and command and control (C2) information centres
- Electronic warfare, the use of electronic means of jamming or the use of anti-radiation [electromagnetic] weapons to attack enemy information and intelligence collection systems such as communications and radar
- Military deception, the use of operations such as tactical feints [simulated attacks] to shield or deceive enemy intelligence collection systems
- Operational secrecy, the use of all means to maintain secrecy and keep the enemy from collecting intelligence on our operations.
- Psychological warfare, the use of TV, radio, and leaflets to undermine the enemy’s military morale.
- Jamming or sabotaging an enemy’s information or information system.
- Sabotaging an enemy’s overall information operational structure.
- Weakening an enemy’s information fighting capacity.
- Dispersing enemy forces, arms and fires while concentrating own forces, arms and fire.
- Confusing or diverting an enemy and creating an excellent combat opportunity for on self.
- Diverting an enemy’s reconnaissance attempt and making sufficient preparations for it.
- Giving the enemy a false impression and launching surprise information attack on him at the same time.
- Blinding or deafening an enemy with false impressions.
- Confusing an enemy or disrupting his thinking.
- Making an enemy believe that what is true is false and what is false is true.
- Causing an enemy to make a wrong judgement or take wrong action.
- Planting information mines
- Conducting information reconnaissance
- Changing network data
- Releasing information bombs
- Dumping information garbage
- Disseminating propaganda
- Applying information deception
- Releasing clone information
- Organising information defence
- Establishing network spy stations
Computer Network Operations
- Computer network attack is the most effective means for a weak adversary to fight a strong one.
- It can be used as a means to deter the enemy.
- It has longer range than the conventional power projection assets, as long distance surveillance and precise powerful and long distance attacks are available to the military.14
Psychological Operations and Information Warfare
PLA’s IW/EW Capabilities
Implications for India
- In the era of cyber warfare, information warfare and net wars, information systems, both civil and military networks, should have adequate redundancy, survivability and electronic security
- For optimisation, the strengths of our IT infrastructure and industry and advancements in satellites and radio-based systems should be jointly exploited by the military and civil sectors.
- Joint network and individual services networks should be able to function in all environments including nuclear. For instance, they should be hardened against or be resistant to an EMP attack.
- We need to induct a wide variety of military satellites for upgrading our strategic ISR, SIGINT, ELINT, COMMINT, imagery and navigation capabilities.
- We need to reflect on the Chinese model of net force based on their militia and examine whether there is a need to adopt a similar model in our Territorial Army units. Even though Computer Emergency Response Teams (CERT) at national and lower levels have been formed to respond to cyber attacks on civilian infrastructure, the concept is more defensive in nature. A pro-active concept like that of net force may be more appropriate.